Sarah, a 63–year-old female with a past medical history significant for diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, gout, and a 30-pack a year smoking history, presents to the emergency room
with chest pain revealing pericarditis in the echocardiogram, secondary to recently diagnosed end-stage renal disease. Physical examination reveals yellowish discoloration to the skin and sclera, multiple bruises, and 2+ bilateral edema. Sarah reports weakness lasting more than three weeks. Her medications include Glisten, a new drug for diabetes that causes ATP sensitive potassium channels to close, thereby releasing insulin.
Her recent laboratory results are as follows:
Address each of the following regarding Sarah’s case:
- Explain the cause for her low calcium and sodium levels.
- Explain the cause of her anemia. What laboratory test should indicate she is suffering from anemia?
- Explain the cause of her hypotension. How will her body attempt to establish homeostasis?
- What type of acid-base disorder has she developed, and how will her body compensate?
- Explain the cause of her elevated ADH and glucose levels.
- What is the correlation between her illnesses and the low vitamins (D, K, E, and A), renin, and aldosterone levels?
- Which hormone would the body elevate in response to her low calcium levels? Why?
- Explain the physiological reason behind her physical findings (yellowish hint of the skin, sclera, multiple bruises, weakness, and edema).
- Explain the cause of her abnormal stool and urine sample.
- What cell does Glisten work on? Explain how this medication is able to stimulate insulin secretion.
- Support your opinions with evidence from your readings and research.
- You must reference a minimum of three (3) scholarly sources in your paper, which includes one non-Internet source.
- Use current APA format to style your paper and to cite your sources.
- Your paper/total responses must be 3–4 pages in length not including the title page, abstract, and reference pages.
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